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When given to a living being, a chemical molecule with a recognized structure that has a biological impact is referred to as a drug. A pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is the science and concept of providing for a patient’s needs, including their diagnosis, prognosis, management of their injury or disease, prevention, treatment, and palliation, as well as the promotion of their health. 

A wide range of medical procedures has evolved over time to preserve and restore health through illness prevention and treatment. Modern medicine uses biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease. While most treatments involve drugs or surgery, other options include psychotherapy, external braces and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing.


Drug classification into seven groups: 

  1. CNS stimulants: CNS stimulants cause the body to boost, or become overstimulated by raising blood pressure, heart rate, and blood pressure.                                                
  2. Cannabis: Marijuana is known scientifically as cannabis. A nice exhilaration and a feeling of relaxation are common experiences. However, other frequent adverse effects can vary significantly from person to person, including increased appetite, heightened sensory awareness (such as seeing brighter colors), laughter, and altered perception of time.                                                                                                               
  3. Inhalants: Different inhalants may have anesthetic, intoxicating, and reinforcing effects by affecting a variety of brain systems.                                                                                     
  4. Hallucinogens: The effects of hallucinogens alter the user’s perception of reality. The user may see/hear things that are not actually present.                                                               
  5. Dissociative anesthetics: Dissociative anesthetics are medications that block or dissociate the brain’s sense of pain, hence inhibiting it.                                                           
  6. Narcotic analgesics: Narcotic analgesics reduce pain, cause euphoria, and alter the user’s mood.                                                                                                                         
  7. Central nervous system (CNS) depressants: The central nervous system and bodily functions are slowed down by CNS depressants.

Each of these classes of drugs has the potential to alter the central nervous system and impair cognitive function.

Illicit Drugs:

Illicit drugs are those whose usage has been outlawed internationally due to their ability to either stimulate or inhibit the central nervous system or to produce hallucinogenic effects, such as amphetamines or sedative-hypnotics.

Types of Illicit or Illegal Drugs:

The most common examples of illegal drugs are:

  • Cocaine: Usually seen in powder form, cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant derived from the coca plant leaves in South America. Cocaine is known on the streets by the names blow, bump, coke, and snow. Although it can also be smoked or absorbed through the skin, cocaine is most frequently snorted or injected.                                      
  • Crack Cocaine: This drug typically comes in the form of solid blocks or crystals. Crack cocaine is a purer and more potent version of this drug. It is often smoked for crack cocaine to enter the brain more rapidly and produce a brief but high solid. Additionally, injections are becoming more frequent.                                                                                 
  • Marijuana: One of the illicit drugs that are most frequently abused is marijuana. THC, the primary psychoactive component, first produces a brief feeling of euphoria, which is followed by tiredness, reduced reaction time, and increased appetite.                                   
  • Artificial marijuana: A rising variety of artificial compounds that contain a component similar to THC are referred to as synthetic marijuana. The effects of synthetic marijuana can be unpredictable and more substantial than those of its natural equivalent, even though it is promoted as a legal alternative.                                                  
  • Heroin: Heroin is made from the opium poppy plant and is a highly addictive chemical. It appears as a white or brownish-colored powder or as a dark, gooey substance known as “black tar.” Although it can also be smoked, snorted, or taken orally, heroin is most frequently administered intravenously.                                                                      
  • Meth: Meth is a stimulant that can quickly lead to addiction in users and is exceedingly harmful. Meth’s immediate side effects include alertness and exhilaration. Meth usage over an extended period of time, however, can result in issues including violent conduct, severe dental issues, psychosis, and extreme paranoia.                                     
  • Ketamine: In veterinary medicine, this chemical is employed as an anesthetic. Ketamine abuse can result in confusion, drowsiness, and hallucinations.                          
  • Hallucinogens: Examples of psychoactive or mind-altering substances include salvia, PCP, mushrooms, and LSD. Although this sort of drug addiction is less common than addiction to other drugs, its use and abuse can have severe adverse effects.                     
  • Ecstasy: Ecstasy, commonly used by high school students and young adults, is referred to as a rave drug. Its psychotropic effects can result in diminished inhibition and improved sensory awareness. Ecstasy can be snorted, injected, or taken orally in the form of pills that can be dissolved in water.                                                                        
  • Inhalants: Inhalants are everyday objects inhaled through the nose or mouth to produce a high, such as spray paint, markers, and cleaning products. Some of these compounds can potentially cause fatal cardiac failure when inhaled.

Drug Addiction

Even in relatively small amounts, many illegal narcotics are dangerous to one’s health. One use of some substances is all it takes to develop an addiction. There is a substantial danger of overdose, which can be fatal, among people who develop an addiction to some illegal narcotics. 

When someone relapses after trying to quit and resumes using the same dose, many overdoses take place. They believe they still require the exact dosage, but in reality, their bodies are no longer accustomed to that level. Particularly true for those who inject illegal narcotics into their bodies.

Substance addiction is considered a brain disorder because it involves functional changes to brain circuits involved in reward, stress, and self-control. Those changes may last long after a person stops taking drugs.

Drug addiction is the usage of illegal drugs, over-the-counter drugs, or prescribed medicines for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used or in excessive amounts. However, it’s not just illegal drugs that can lead to abuse and addiction. Prescription medications such as sleeping pills, painkillers, and tranquilizers can cause similar addiction problems.

A person addicted to drugs usually experiences changes in the body and brain, such as drug tolerance and drug withdrawal:

  • Drug tolerance means that the subject’s body has adapted to the drug’s presence and effects, so it consumes more of the drug to produce the same upshots. 
  • Drug withdrawal occurs when people experience specific physical and psychological symptoms/changes if the use of the substance is instantaneously reduced or suddenly halted.

 Rehab facilities are extremely beneficial in the treatment of substance addiction and are of great help needed during withdrawal symptoms. In addition, psychologists can offer assistance in helping patients overcome addictions, cope with stressful situations, and manage their chronic conditions. 

Talk to a mental health care professional if the behavior is causing distress and disrupting your life. Make contact with a treatment professional very away so they can explain your therapy options to you.


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