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Major depressive disorder, sometimes known as depression, is a severe medical condition that frequently affects people’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It is a mood condition characterized by a persistent sense of melancholy and loss of interest.
A short-lived emotional response to problems in daily life and typical mood swings are not the same as depression. Depression may develop into a significant medical illness, especially if it is recurrent and moderate to severe. It can result in intense suffering and poor performance in the affected person’s home, work, and school. Suicide can result from depression at its worst.
Depression is not a weakness that can be easily overcome. Long-term treatment may be necessary for depression.
Symptoms of Depression
From moderate to severe, depression symptoms might include:
- A sense of sadness or depressed mood.
- Loss of enjoyment or interest in once-enjoyed activities.
- Changes in appetite, unrelated weight loss, or gain.
- Lack of sleep or excessive sleep (Insomnia).
- Energy loss or increased fatigue.
- An increase in pointless movement (such as hand-wringing, pacing, or an inability to sit still) or slower speech or movement (these actions must be severe enough to be observable by others).
- Feeling guilty or unworthy.
- Thinking, concentration, or decision-making challenges.
- Agitation, restlessness, or anxiety.
- A sense of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness, or helplessness.
- Undiagnosed physical issues such as headaches or back pain.
- Suicidal ideas, regular attempts at suicide, or frequent thoughts of death/suicide
Teens may experience symptoms such as sadness, irritability, feeling down and unworthy, anger, poor performance or poor attendance at school, feeling misunderstood and overly sensitive, using alcohol or drugs recreationally, overeating, engaging in self-harm, losing interest in regular activities, and avoiding social interaction.
Depression is not a regular aspect of becoming older and should not be treated lightly. Unfortunately, older persons with depression frequently go undetected and untreated, and they may be hesitant to get assistance.
It is a relapse when symptoms of depression return or worsen while recovering from an earlier episode. Most relapses happen within two months of ceasing treatment for an earlier episode.
When symptoms of depression resurface months or years after a person has recovered from the last episode, this is known as a depression recurrence. The first six months are when it happens most frequently. After that, recurrences occur in 20% of persons on average, but when depression is severe, this number might go up.
Causes of Depression
Many things can lead to depression, including:
- Life experiences: Depression may be brought on by tension, losing a loved one, distressing incidents (trauma), loneliness, and a lack of social support.
- Mind chemistry: Depression may result from abnormalities in brain chemical levels.
- Genetics: You might be more prone to depression if a family member already struggles with it.
- Health issues: Chronic sickness and physical discomfort can contribute to depression. Diabetes, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and other illnesses frequently co-exist with depression in people.
- Medication: Depression is a side effect of some drugs, leading to substance abuse or addiction.Alcohol and recreational substances can both induce depression or exacerbate it.
- Personality: People who have problems managing or are easily overwhelmed may be more prone to depression.
Types of Depression
Various forms of depression include:
- Depression of significant proportions (MDD):
Intense or overpowering symptoms of major depression (clinical depression) persist for more than two weeks. These symptoms make daily life difficult.
- Bipolar depression:
Bipolar disorder patients experience manic and depressed mood swings regularly. In addition, they might experience depressive symptoms, including sadness, hopelessness, or lack of energy at this time.
- PMDD or Premenstrual dysphoric disorder:
A severe form of premenstrual disorder is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS). Women are impacted in the days or weeks before their period.
- Depression and psychosis:
Psychotic depression is characterized by severe depressive symptoms and hallucinations or delusions. Hallucinations involve seeing, hearing, or feeling touched by things that aren’t truly there, whereas delusions are beliefs in things that aren’t grounded in reality.
- Depression during pregnancy and postpartum:
“Perinatal” refers to the time immediately before delivery. This kind is frequently referred to as postpartum depression. Perinatal depression can happen at any time throughout pregnancy or even up to a year after giving birth. The “baby blues” are only one set of symptoms and only result in mild melancholy, anxiety, or stress.
- SAD, or seasonal affective disorder:
Seasonal depression, often known as SAD, typically begins in late fall or early winter. In the spring and summer, it frequently disappears.
Depression and Addiction
Sometimes using drugs and alcohol can seem like a simple fix for those who are depressed and believe there is no end in sight. These drugs might make you feel happier and temporarily relieve any emotional suffering. These substances can, however, develop an addiction. Your body will depend more on their effects as you take more of them. Substance usage over time can worsen depressive symptoms and result in long-term health issues like brain damage.
Some individuals may require social assistance and health management training. Contact a local mental health helpline, speak with a counselor, or contact a doctor if you believe you cannot handle the stress you are experiencing. Remember that you are not alone, talk to people suffering problems like yours and have options for promoting your mental health.
Treatment for Depression
Depression symptoms can be reduced by exercising regularly, getting enough sleep, and spending time with those you care about.
Speaking with a mental health practitioner is counseling or psychotherapy. Your therapist aids in problem-solving and coping skill development. Sometimes only a short course of therapy is required. However, some people stay in treatment for longer.
- Alternative health care:
Complementary treatment can help people with ongoing symptoms of mild depression or mild depression to feel better. Massage, acupuncture, hypnosis, and biofeedback are all forms of therapy.
Antidepressants, a class of prescription drugs, can help alter the brain chemistry that underlies depression. However, it may take a few weeks for antidepressants to start working. Although some antidepressants have adverse effects, they frequently get better over time. If not, speak with your provider. You might see better results from other drugs.
- Therapy for brain stimulation:
People with severe depression or depression coupled with psychosis may benefit from brain stimulation therapy.
Since there are many similarities between the symptoms of addiction and depression, patients must receive the proper care and treatment for both conditions.
Anyone who wishes to overcome a problem with a substance and co-occurring depression abuse should seek competent medical assistance.
Finding a facility with experience treating your particular substance addiction and depression is crucial. Ask treatment centers whether they have experience handling your specific case because every substance has a different physical and psychological impact.
To achieve long-lasting recovery, an addict frequently needs treatment—sometimes multiple attempts at treatment. People in treatment can learn how to control their addiction and acquire the tools and abilities to deal with cravings, triggers, and other difficulties that come with sobriety.
Rehabilitation facilities are recognized to be the most beneficial for aiding with withdrawal and addiction in general. In addition, brain stimulation therapies, which entail electrically directly activating or inhibiting the brain, can be used as treatments.
We take extra steps to give you the proper care, support, and treatment required for a quick recovery because we recognize that your challenges are real.